Interpretation and criticism[ edit ] Richard Nisbett has described the Hawthorne effect as "a glorified anecdote", saying that "once you have got the anecdote, you can throw away the data.
Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise-money, materials, equipment, and people in the interests of economic ends.
The experimental group had considerable freedom of movement. The Hawthorne Works had commissioned a study to see if its workers would become more productive in higher or lower levels of light.
In the process, he stumbled upon a principle of human motivation that would help to revolutionize the theory and practice of management. Even if an individual does not want to move into management, he probably does not want to do the same exact work for 20 years.
Needs at the higher levels of the hierarchy are less oriented towards physical survival and more toward psychological well-being and growth. Instead of receiving discipline from higher authority, it emerged from within the group. The researchers found that although the workers were paid according to individual productivity, productivity decreased because the men were afraid that the company would lower the base rate.
According to the Maslow hierarchy, if a person feels threatened, needs further up the pyramid will not receive attention until that need has been resolved. More generally, the researchers concluded that supervisory style greatly affected worker productivity.
Also refers to emotional and physical safety. This explains why productivity rose even when he took away their rest breaks. One interpretation, mainly due to Elton Mayo was that "the six individuals became a team and the team gave itself wholeheartedly and spontaneously to cooperation in the experiment.
Others suggested that Theory Y was not always more effective than Theory X, but that the contingencies of each managerial situation determined which of the approaches was more appropriate.
Relay Assembly The group was employed in assembling telephone relays — a relay being a small but intricate mechanism composed of about forty separate parts which had to be assembled by the girls seated at a lone bench and dropped into a chute when completed.
Those experiments showed no clear connection between productivity and the amount of illumination but researchers began to wonder what kind of changes would influence output. The manager is more likely to act as a coach rather than a judge, focusing on how performance can be improved in the future rather than on who was responsible for past performance.
In the s, Douglas McGregora psychologist who taught at MIT and served as president of Antioch College fromcriticized both the classical and human relations schools as inadequate for the realities of the workplace. Under these conditions, they developed an increased sense of responsibility.
Theory Y leadership should increase communication flow, especially in the upward direction. Also refers to emotional and physical safety.
Generally, a person beginning their career will be very concerned with physiological needs such as adequate wages and stable income and security needs such as benefits and a safe work environment.
According to Maslow, only a small percentage of the population reaches the level of self-actualization. The answers to all of these questions is clearly, no. Examples of security needs include a desire for steady employment, health insurance, safe neighborhoods and shelter from the environment.
The major finding of the study was that almost regardless of the experimental manipulation employed, the production of the workers seemed to improve.
Hire Writer This raised morale and led to increased productivity. Rewards need to be balanced to have a maximum effect.
We all want a good salary to meet the needs of our family and we want to work in a stable environment. Elton Mayo had secured the girls cooperation and loyalty. The most basic physical requirements, such as food, water, or oxygen, constitute the lowest level of the need hierarchy.
The humanistic viewpoint has been very influential on psychotherapy and counseling, and many therapists identify themselves as humanistic in orientation.MacGregor and Theories X & Y. MBO, TQM, & ISO. Analysis of the Trends. The Hawthorne Effect. General Foods. Conclusion. Bibliography.
Douglas McGregor taught psychology and industrial management at MIT and was president of Antioch College from to Hawthorne studies The human relations movement was born from the Hawthorne studies, which were conducted by Elton Mayo and Fritz Roethlisberger from to Originally, the studies focused on how physical conditions like lighting affect workers’ productivity, but the studies actually found that one of the biggest influencers was being.
Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Essay Words | 4 Pages Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Biography of Douglas McGregor Douglas McGregor was born on in Detroit, America.
The Hawthrone Studiesdouglas | Mcgregor's Theory X and Theory Y | Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory X represents a negative view of human nature that assumes individuals generally dislike work, are irresponsible, and require close supervision to. Theory X, Theory Y by Douglas McGregor is a motivation theory.
Douglas McGregor is a social psychologist and applied two sets of assumptions to the organizational structure called Theory X and Theory Y. McGregor's Theory X and Y: Both the Hawthorne studies and Maslow heavily influenced Douglas McGregor.
His classic book, "The Human Side of Enterprise," advances the thesis that managers should give more attention to the social and self-actualizing needs of people at work.Download